When Julius Caesar reformed the Roman calendar, the Roman Senate voted to name a month for him – “July.” Caesar’s calendar (known as the Julian Calendar) featured alternating months of 30 and 31 days. July of course had 31 days. In contrast, February had the fewest days – 29, with leap year adding an extra day.
When Augustus became Emperor of Rome, the Senate voted to add “August” after July. Since August only had 30 days, the Senate took one from February and added it to this month. The calendar was rearranged with June and September having thirty days. August could not have any less days than July, since Augustus was equal to Julius Caesar.
For Romans, August is a busy month of festivals. The harvest is coming due and needs to be collected. Since the summer is still hot and dry, the fire season has started. Therefore, the Gods of Harvest and Gods of Fires are honored.
On August 5, the augurium Salutis is held to pray for the preservation of the public health and well-being. Held at the temple of Salus, the Goddess of Safety and Well-Being, salt is offered to the Gods. Prayers for good health are made to Salus, Pax (Goddess of Peace), Concordia (Goddess of Concord) and Janus.
On August 9, offerings are made to Sol Indiges (The Native Sun) for a good harvest. One of the 12 principal Gods of agriculture, Sol Indiges is the God of the Agricultural Year. He nurtures the harvest from beginning to end. On August 30, Sol Indiges is honored with Luna, the Goddess of the Moon, at the Templum Solis et Lunae. This was the day for chariot races, since both Gods are patrons of racing.
Held on August 13, the Vertumnalia is to celebrate Vertumnus, the Changer of the Seasons. Since He is also the Husband of Pomona, the Goddess of Fruit, Vertumnus receives the first fruits of the harvest. This God is depicted holding in his right hand, grapes, cherries, and other fruits, while at his feet sets a basket of cucumbers.
The main festival honoring Diana, the Goddess of Wild Nature, Nemoralia is held on August 15. Also called “The Festival of Torches,” the Nemoralia takes place in sacred groves. Women wash and decorate their hair in flowers and ribbons. With lighted torches, they add their “light” to the moon’s glow. Afterwards, everyone tie prayers written on ribbons to the trees. (This festival later became the Feast of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary.)
To honor Portunus, the God of Ports and Keys, Romans hold the Portunalia on August 17. Because He first protected gates, Portunus is shown holding keys. During the Portunalia, people throw their keys into fires to safeguard their homes.
On August 23, the Volcanalia is held to ask Volcanus, the God of Raging Fires, to stay at rest. Sacrifices are also made to Stata Mater, the Goddess of Quenching the Fire and Juturna, the Goddess of Streams as well. To honor Volcanus, herds are driven over fires, and fish are offered. Also, people ask Him to protect their homes from fire.
Consus and Ops
The first sets of two festivals for Consus and Ops is held on August 21, the Consualia, and August 25, the Opiconsivia. The second sets of festivals is held in December. The first set celebrates the end of the harvest, and the second the autumn sowing. Between the August festivals, the Mundus Patet (the Door to the Underworld) is opened on August 24 for the first time in the year.
The Consualia, a public festival, featured horse racing. The God of the Granary, Consus is also associated with mules and horses. He also received receive offerings of first fruits of the harvest.
Meanwhile the Opiconsivia for Ops, the Goddess of Plenty, is a private affair attended by the Vestal Virgins and the Sacerdos Publica (head priest). Ops in her role of Consiva (the Sower) is celebrated. Therefore during this festival to Ops, one hand touches the earth while invoking this Goddess.
Finally on August 27, the Volturnalia is held to ask Volturnus not to bring the drying winds. Originally an Etruscan God, Volturnus raises clouds of dust thereby causing much devastation. For the Ancient Romans, the drying winds came from the southeast, therefore Volturnus is also the God of the Southeast Wind.