God of the Month: Minerva


Often conflated with Athena, the Greek Goddess of Wisdom, Minerva is uniquely Roman. Adapting various aspects of the Etruscan Goddess Menrva, the Romans regarded Minerva as the Goddess of War and the Goddess of Wisdom. In war, Minerva counsels the generals on their strategy for battle. In peace, She guides the legislators in governing the state. (As one of the Capitoline Triad (with Juno and Jupiter), She governs the affairs of the country.)

Ovid referred to Minerva as the Goddess of a Thousand Works. Besides being a Goddess of War and Wisdom, She is the Patron of Doctors. As the Goddess of the Arts, Minerva invented numbers and music. She oversees crafts, learning, science and trade. In fact, I regard Minerva, the Goddess of Technology.

The Romans considered the Palladium (the Statue of Minerva) a gift from Her to them. The Vestal Virgins guarded this and other sacred items in their temple. Meanwhile, at her temple on the Esquiline Hill, people would place votive objects of healing into vaults (favissae).

The “Greater” Quinquatrus, the first of the two festivals for Minerva, is held from March 19 to 23. This festival is celebrated by artists, actors, students and writers. Because her temple on Aventine Hill served as guild headquarters, actors and writers would hold their sacrifices to Minerva there. Meanwhile the schools closed as their students celebrated the end of the school year. Teachers received their annual salary called a Minerval at this time.

The second festival, the “Lesser” Quinquatrus, takes place on June 13. Since Minerva is the Patroness of Musicians, the flute players would stage masked processions through Rome. In modern times, it is appropriate to listen to master flautists to honor Her.

Salve Minerva Augusta!
Goddess of Wisdom
Many are Your Attributes

Salve Minerva Augusta!
With Jupiter Capitolinus and Juno Regina,
You sagely govern us, your Quirites

Salve Minerva Victoria!
You who pierces ignorance
With Your Spear.
You who fends off stupidity
With Your Shield.
You who grants knowledge
With Your Helm.

Salve Minerva Augusta!
You who burst fully formed
Into my life
Guiding me to Rome,
Guiding me to Home,
I thank you.

Salve Minerva Augusta!
Goddess of Wisdom
Many are Your Attributes.


Monotheistic Filter: “Re-worlding the Gods”

Max Weber, German sociologist, introduced the concept, “disenchantment of the world” to explain the malaise found in modern society. Weber explained that when the revealed religions became dominant, they sought to explain the unknown. The Christian “Myth of the Redeemer” depended on a meaningful cosmos. Therefore, Christianity developed a systematic rationalization of problems and their solutions. Revenants (The Active Dead) became the wandering souls of Purgatory.

After the Protestant Reformation, religion, as a whole, gradually lost its authority over creating meaning for the world. The Enlightenment brought forth secular disciplines such as science and history to provide new definitions. These emerging authorities took over explaining the unknown. Ghosts, once the wandering souls of Christianity, became only figments of people’s imaginations.

Meanwhile, modern people have tried to bring the mystical back into their world, but The Filter prevents them. One popular method is using Carl Jung’s theories of the Collective Unconscious. By employing archetypes, people can allow the ancient myths to regain their power. However, Jung’s theories is a retelling of the “Myth of the Redeemer.” The objective is for people to unite with their Higher Selves (i.e. the God Archetype), and become whole.

Another method often tried is Marxism. According to Marx and Engels, Capitalism has objectified and commodified the world. Therefore, its victims should band together, pool their resources, and defeat this evil. Under Communism, the new religion of humanity, people will work for the common good. Since the basis of Marxism is people’s feelings of instability and pessimism, it fails. These emotions are rooted in the disenchanted world.


Works Used:

Dintino, Theresa, “Notes from a Diviner in the Postmodern World.” Self-published. 2016.

“Divining America: Religion in American History,” National Humanities Center Teacher Server. 2010. Web: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/divam.htm

Felluga, Dino, “General Introduction to Postmodernism,” Introductory Guide to Critical Theory. 2015. Web: http://www.purdue.edu/guidetotheory/postmodernism/modules/introduction.html

Filan, Kenaz and Raven Kaldera, “Drawing Down the Spirits.” Rochester (VT): Destiny Books. 2009.
“Talking to the Spirits.” Rochester (VT): Destiny Books. 2013.

Hansen, George P., “Max Weber and the Charisma of Disenchantment,” The Trickster and the Paranormal, 2001. Web: http://www.tricksterbook.com/ArticlesOnline/Chapter8-MaxWeberCharismaDisenchantment.pdf

Romanian Association for Psychoanalysis Promotion (AROPA), “Resources for Carl Jung.” 2017. Web: http://carl-jung.net/index.html

Walter, Philippe, “Christianity, the Origins of a Pagan Religion,” trans. Jon E. Graham. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions. 2003.

Walton, Chris, “Philocrites: Religion, Liberalism, and Culture.” 2009. Web: http://philocrites.com/index.html

Babylonian Gods of the Month: March


The beginning of the Babylonian year starts at the Spring Equinox. During Nisannu, the new moon after the equinox, the Akitu, the New Year Festival is held for twelve days. It starts with purifications and then the Enuma Elish (the Babylonian Creation Epic) is read. This myth begins with the original creation of the world by Tiamat, the God of Chaos, and Apsu, the God of Waters. Later Enlil, a God from the succeeding generation becomes the “Father of the Gods.” Eventually, He cedes his powers to Anu, from yet a newer generation of Gods, who seeks to overthrow the original Gods. After Apsu is killed, Tiamat wages war on the newer Gods. In desperation, Enlil goes to Marduk, the principal deity of Babylon, for help. On the condition that He is made the Ruler of the Gods, Marduk agrees. After killing Tiamat, Marduk remakes the world from her body.

During the Akitu, Marduk disappears. While his and Nabu’s temples are being cleansed, the people search for Him. At this time, they carry the statues of the other Gods to Mardulk’s temple. Meanwhile, Nabu, the Scribe of the Gods and Marduk’s Minister, searches for and then frees Marduk from the Underworld. Then in his temple, the priests re-enthroned Marduk as the Ruler of the Gods. Afterwards, they do divination for the coming year. The festival ends with celebrations and the return of the Gods to their shrines.

Meanwhile to begin the growing season, the King would enact a sacred marriage with the temple priestess of Ishtar. Their mating is to reaffirm the marriage of Ishtar, the Goddess of Fertility, with her husband, Tammuz. These marriage rites ensure that the King is accepted as one of the Gods, and blessed by Ishtar, who also blesses the crops.

For Further Reading:

God of the Month: Inanna (Ishtar)

God of the Month: Nabu, Babylonian Patron of Writing

God of the Month: Tiamat of Babylon

God of the Month: Marduk of Babylon

Marduk and Tiamat (Enuma Elish: The Epic of Creation)

Babylonian New Year’s Festival



Roman Gods of the Month: March

The month of March is named for Mars, the Roman God of War. Besides war, Mars also protected the land and crops. Spring brought both preparations for planting and for war. The Feriae Marti (the Festival of Mars), lasts for nearly the entire month and is similar to the Carnival Season and Mardi Gras.

Traditionally, the New Year for Romans began in March, the first month of the original calendar. After the reforms of Numa Pompilis and Julius Caesar, it was still celebrated as a second New Year’s Day. The spring equinox was still the beginning of the planting and war seasons.

Juno Lucina
On March 1, the Matronalia is held in honor of mothers. Husbands and daughters give presents to mothers. Juno Lucina, the aspect of Juno who governs over women and childbirth, receives prayers for safe childbirth and fertility. God of the Month: Juno Lucina

Anna Perenna
On March 15th (Ides), Traditional New Year is celebrated. Anna Perenna, the Goddess of the Returning Year, oversees the celebrations. People would picnic and drink cups of wine in her honor, and offer prayers for a prosperous year. God of the Month: Anna Perenna

Liber Pater and Libera
On March 17, the Liberalia is held. Wearing ivy wreaths, several old women offer cakes made from oil and honey (libia) to Liber Pater. Then a large phallus is taken around to encourage the plants to grow and for a good harvest. Liber Pater and Libera are the Gods of the Male and Female Seeds, respectively. Gods of the Month: Liber Pater and Libera

From March 19 to 24, the Quinquatrus is held to honor Minerva, the Goddess of the Arts and War. Since the first day is sacred to Her, no blood is shed on that day. The Quinquatrus is celebrated by artisans and students. Traditional Roman festivities included martial arts contests.

Starting the 1st of the March and on the 9th, and 24th, the Salii (Leaping Priests of Mars) danced through the streets of Rome singing hymns, and later held feasts in honor of Mars. Horse races were held, sacrifices made, and trumpets purified. Mamurius Venturius, the Old Man of March, was driven out of Rome taking disease and sickness with Him. Gods of the Month: Mars


Monotheistic Filter: Redefining God(s)

Monotheism has embedded in people’s minds that God is always good and always rational. He cares about individuals and humankind. Under the watchful eye of God, everything happens for a reason. This ratifies the person’s importance in the mundane world.

Sociologists Christian Smith and Melinda Denton coined “Moralistic Therapeutic Deism” (Note 1) in 2005 to describe the beliefs of American teenagers. They define this term as:

1. A God exists who created, ordered the world, and watches over human life on earth.
2. The God wants people to be good, nice, and fair to each other, as taught in “The Bible” and by most world religions.
3. The central goal of life is to be happy and to feel good about oneself.
4. The God does not need to be particularly involved in one’s life, except when this God is needed to resolve a problem.
5. Good people go to heaven when they die.

This is reflected in Polytheism, in the following ways. Everyone must have a special relationship with one God. Because of this, other people bemoan the lack of having a Patron. Moreover, a number of Polytheists only develop a relationship with one or two Gods, ignoring the rest. In each case, the God in question watches out for them, without expecting reciprocity.

The most striking example in Polytheism are the Moralistic Therapeutic Deities Who were the Norse Gods, Loki and Odin. In Tumblr postings, their God-Spouses (usually female) focus on how these Gods will meet their needs. They write about their importance to Odin or Loki (or Both), and how much He cares for them. These God-Spouses have no other relations with any of the Norse Gods.

Other examples are the blog sites of “Naturalistic Paganism” and “Humanist Paganism” which are directed towards Pagans who do not believe in the Gods. The bloggers, at those sites, regard Polytheism and Monotheism as the same religion, with One God in many forms. Written for Marxists, “Gods and Radicals” have bloggers who regard their Gods as devoted to the Marxist cause, while all other Polytheists (and their Gods) are the Capitalist enemy.

Meanwhile, “The Valkyrie Squad” of Tumblr reviews blogs, and lists only those they deem safe for Pagans and Heathens. They write that “racism, sexism, misogyny, ableism, homophobia and trans-phobia will not be tolerated.” My opinion is that The Valkyrie Squad functions similar to the Roman Catholic Church who had the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (the List of Prohibited Books). This group of self-appointed and unknown people with only screen names have decided that the Polytheist Gods should be comprised only of their particular ideas.

Note 1. R. Albert Mohler Jr., “Moralistic Therapeutic Deism – the New American Religion.”

Molher, R. Albert, Jr., “Moralistic Therapeutic Deism – the New American Religion,” The Christian Post. 18, April, 2005. Web: http://www.christianpost.com/news/moralistic-therapeutic-deism-the-new-american-religion-6266/

The Monotheistic Filter


The Monotheistic Filter

What is The Monotheistic Filter?

In her blog, “Gangleri’s Grove,” (Note 1) Galina Krasskova explains that people are shaped and informed by nearly 2000 years of Monotheism. She calls this shaping, the Monotheistic Filter. In her opinion, The Filter is a sentient being that feeds off humanity. According to Krasskova, The Filter works tirelessly against the Gods, to retain Its hold on people.

Easy to describe, The Filter is hard to define. I have experienced It as an aspect of the Monotheistic Gods (God). (Note 2) In trying keep his power, He uses the Filter to disable and dissuade people from challenging Him. He needs people to continue to believe in redemption and salvation, which makes them dependent on Him.

Religion can be divided into “revealed” and “natural.” In revealed religions, God transmits his knowledge and expectations through prophets. Holy texts such as “The Bible” are the official record of these revelations. Meanwhile, God is transcendent and beyond all physical laws. To interact with Him, a person has to give up the world and seek salvation. Religious doctrine and dogma are interpretations of this God’s requirements and desires.

In contrast, natural religions like Polytheism arise from people’s interactions with the world. The Gods and other Spirits are immanent and live in this world. They are accessible to people through divination and offerings. The relationship between humans and the Holy Powers is one of reciprocity and mutual respect.

Before modern people can develop a Polytheistic mindset, they need to know the workings of The Filter. It spreads through groupthink (Note 3), which colors what people think and believe to be true. The prism that truth is determined by is filtered through others and the culture they live in. The group teaches people to how to cherry pick for “truth.” By collecting certain stories and discarding others, people form their belief systems in accordance to groupthink. This is how The Filter burrows into people’s thought processes.

Note 1. Galina Krasskova, “Radical Polytheists or Happy Fucking New Year to You Too.”“Radical Polytheists or Happy Fucking New Year to You Too.”

Gangelri’s Grove. 5 January 2015. Web: https//krasskova.wordpress.com/2015/01/05/radical-polytheists-or-happy-fucking-new-year-to-you-too/

Note 2. Monotheism has multiple Gods, all male, and all specific to each Monotheistic religion (Christianity, Judaism, and Islam).  The Filter is an aspect of all these Gods united.

My experience with the Filter has been one of pain. I was thrown out of bed when I started this essay. As I continued, I suffered from strained calves. The Filter is nasty to those who defy It.

Note 3. Groupthink occurs when a group reaches a consensus by minimizing conflict. Outside or alternative viewpoints are not allowed for the sake of group harmony.


Gods of the Month: February


In February, Romans prepare for the coming of spring by purifying themselves, their homes, and their regions. “February” comes from februum (purgation), and the februa (expiatory rituals). Ceremonies for the Dead abound, since a part of purification is fulfilling the obligations to the Dead. For example, the Lupercalia and Quirinalia have specific purifications rites as a part of their rituals. In addition, the Terminalia and Fornacalia are a part of the worship of the Di Parentes (Parents). Meanwhile, the Feralia focused on all the Dead and the Parentalia on the Lar Familiaris (family spirit).

For Roman Polytheists, the focus on the Dead puts them outside the norm of Pagans, who usually follow the Wheel of the Year. For these Pagans, Samhain, held in October, is when the Dead walk the earth. Meanwhile, Imbolc, which is held in February, is the fire festival of Brighid. This time of restrained joy focuses on the returning of new life. In contrast, for Romans, February is the time that the Dead walk freely amongst the living.

Fornax and Quirinus

The Fornacalia is held between February 5 and 17. At this time, in ancient Rome, people brought grain to the communal ovens to be parched in the ancient manner of their fathers. Fornax, the Goddess of Bakers and Ovens, was invoked to keep the wheat from burning. The last day of the Fornacalia is the Quirinalia, also known as “The Feast of Fools.” This is the time that people who delayed bringing their grain came to fulfill their civic duty. Modern observances involved making bread from scratch, and making offerings to Juno Curitis (Juno of the Curia (Wards)).

Quirinus is thought to be the deified Romulus, and represents the Romans in their civic sense. “Quirites” is what officials addressed Roman citizens as. In their military capacity, Romans were called “Romani.” Gods of the Month: Fornax and Quirinus

Di Parentes and Di Manes (The Dead)

The Parentalia starts February 13 and runs through February 21. The Caristia on February 22 officially ends this period of venerating the Dead. During this time, the Lupercalia and Feralia are held. Each ritual focuses on a different aspect of purification, families, and the Dead. The Parentalia is a private ceremony that the family does to honor their dead. The Feralia entails visiting the graves and making offerings. The Caristia is a family feast, where all quarrels between family members are settled. Family unity is then cemented with the household Lars. God of the Month: Di Parentes and Di Manes

Faunus and Inuus

On February 15, the Lupercalia is held. Traditionally, sacrifices were made at the Lupercal Cave in Rome, where the She-Wolf nursed Romulus and Remus. This was followed by the Lupercii (young men) running through the streets striking women with the februa (goatskin whips). This was to insure fertility in the women. Traditional Gods of Fertility, Faunus and Inuus preside over the Lupercalia. Modern observances entail prayers for purification and fertility, the cleaning of the house and self, and offerings left in secluded areas. Gods of the month: Faunus, Inuus, and the She-Wolf of Rome


The Terminalia, held on February 23, honors the God of Boundaries. It is a time of purifying the land and redefining the boundaries between homes. The “beating of the bounds” which entails walking around the perimeter reestablishes the boundaries for another year. Cakes and wine are offered to Terminus during this activity. God of the Month: Terminus