God of the Month: Vortumnus (Vertumnus)

Little marrow type pumpkin and flower.

Little marrow type pumpkin and yellow flower.

Called The Changer, Vortumnus can be considered the God of Seasonal Change. He causes the plants to swell into vegetables. He turns the grapes purple and ripen the cherries. His influence becomes obvious in August, when the signs of autumn begin to show. At this time, the vegetables are ready to be picked. In the change from winter to spring, the focus is on Liber and Libera, who fertilize the plants. (Vortumnus does bring the warmth of spring.)

Vortunmus is the Protector of Gardens. His wife, Pomona, is the Goddess of Fruit and Fruit Trees. Together, They watch over the fruits and vegetables that we eat. During the Vortumnalia (August 13), I give thanks to Vortunmus for the produce from my grocery store, especially for the heirloom tomatoes.

Salve Vortumnus!
The Changer
The Turner
Your touch causes
The cucumber to ripen
The cherry to be sweet
You bring the changes of each season.
We feel You in the Autumn
But You are always there
The breath of warmth of Spring
The chill of Winter
Turning, turning the seasons one by one.
Salve Vortumnus!

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Polytheism and Spiritual Pollution

Mention “miasma,” “pollution,” or “purity” in regards to Polytheism, and many Pagans will take umbrage with these terms. One reason is that Christianity has redefined these Polytheistic terms to match its theology. Since many Pagans are converts from Christianity, they will often think of these concepts in those terms. However, “miasma,” “pollution,” and “purity” had different meanings in Polytheism.

Paganism does have its version of “pollution” and “purity.” Pagans discuss “positive” and “negative” energies. People will cleanse themselves and their spaces routinely to clear out negative energy. For example, crystals are often cleansed before using them. Also, before rituals, many Pagans will smudge themselves to purify themselves and to clean out the ritual space.

Miasma and spiritual pollution are different from both negative energy and Christian sin. Negative energy powers destruction, sickness, and other such things. It can be removed by laughter or positive thinking. Sin is removed by baptism and confession. Miasma, which is specific to Greek Polytheism, is a “spiritual pollution that prevails over all, it is not an ‘evil thing.’” Continuing in his essay, Markos Gage says “Miasma is therefore something we incur in life, everyday life.” (Note 1)

In Roman Polytheism, castus (the adjective) means being morally pure, pious, or ritually pure. Piety (pietas) is maintaining the right relations between people, their Gods, their families, and their communities. Castitas (the noun) is the purity of the ritual and the participants. (Note 2) That means everyone must be physically and mentally cleansed before conducting a ritual. Before a ritual, people perform ablutions by washing their hands and asking that the water purify them.

An error conducted in a ritual is a spiritual pollutant. It negates the ritual and risks the anger of the Gods. It is not that a God will smite someone, but is to maintain the Pax Deorum, the Peace of the Gods. Religious negligence leads to divine disharmony and the turning away of the Gods. This leads to the loss of protection for the family, community, and the individual.

The closest thing that Roman Polytheism has to Christian sin is nefas. This can be defined as anything which is contrary to divine law. Nefas is a failure to fulfill a religious duty. Nefas is a willful act of religious violation.

Polytheists regard the world to be neutral, which differs from Christian theology. St. Augustine stated that the world is both corrupt and corrupting. Therefore, humanity lives in a Fallen World. To Polytheists, the world is both clean and dirty. Kenaz Filan explains, “The world is a clean flowing stream, and miasma the sewage dumped into the water. We clean the stream by filtering that sewage or by redirecting it…to where it can be properly contained.” (Note 3)

Why focus on purity and pollution? When a person prays, divine, or perform any other sacred act, they are engaging with the Holy Powers. There is a doctrine in U.S. law called, “Clean Hands” (also called “Dirty Hands”). (Note 4) The plaintiff cannot have the judge participate in an illegal act. One example is a drug dealer cannot sue to have his stolen drugs be returned. Another is suing the hit man you hired to kill someone for failure to do their job. As Judge Judy says on her TV show, “the courts will not help anyone with dirty hands.” I believe that in our relations with the Gods, we can think of purity and pollution in those terms.

Notes:
Note 1. Markos Gage, “Answers About Miasma,” from “With Clean Minds and Clean Hands,” Galina Krasskova, ed. P. 51. Markos Gage is a devotee of Dionysius and an artist.

Note 2. The Romans have a Goddess – Lua – who protects all things purified by rituals and for rituals.

Note 3. Kenez Filan, “Miasma” from “With Clean Minds and Clean Hands,” Galina Krasskova, ed. P. 69. Kenez Filan is the author of several books including “Drawing Down the Spirits (with Raven Kaldera)”. He is an initiated Houngan Si Pwen.

Note 4. Clean hands: “Under the clean hands doctrine, a person who has acted wrongly, either morally or legally – that is, who has ‘unclean hands’ – will not be helped by a court when complaining about the actions of someone else.” From The ‘Lectric Law Library, http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c202.htm

Works Used:
Galina Krasskova, “With Clean Minds and Clean Hands”
L. Vitellius Triarius, “Religio Romana Handbook.”

Anat: Goddess of Canaan

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Anat by Grace Kelly from Anat Prayer Card

Anat (‘Anatu) of Canaan is best known for her loyalty to Ba‘al Hadad (Ba‘lu Haddu) (Note 1), and for her fierce warriorship. She is the daughter of El (‘Ilu), who presides over the Divine Assembly (Note 2). Anat is also the sister and cohort of Ba‘al Hadad, the Mighty Cloudrider.

Fiercely loyal to Ba‘al, Anat attends his feast celebrating his victory feast over Yam, God of the Sea. After She arrives, Anat seals the doors shut, then proceeds to kill every enemy of Ba‘al who attended. Up to her waist in blood, Anat stomps around on the skulls littering the floor, in search of more enemies. Still full of bloodlust, She runs out of people to kill, so Anat attacks her furniture. Afterwards, Anat washes up and makes Herself presentable.

rom the Ba‘al Epic
“She smites the people of the seashore, destroys mankind of the sunrise.
Under Her are heads like vultures. Over Her are hands like locusts.
Pouring the oil of peace from a bowl, the Virgin Anath washes Her hands,
The Progenitress of Heroes, (washes) Her fingers.
She washes Her hands in the blood of soldiery, Her fingers in the gore of troops.”

(The New World Encyclopedia)

In the Ba‘al Epic, Anan searches for the remains of Ba‘al, who had been killed by Mot (Motu), the God of Death. Finding his body, She gives Ba‘al a proper burial, assisted by her sister, Shapash (Shapshu), the Goddess of the Sun. Still enraged, Anat goes off in search of Ba‘al’s killer. Finding Mot, She murders Him, burns his body, chops it up, and scatters the remains around the countryside.

Meanwhile, El receives a dream that Ba‘al and Mot have returned from the dead. Upon his return, Mot complains to El about Anat. Indignant, Ba‘al brawls with Mot until Shapash mediates their dispute. Meanwhile, Anat does not receive any reprimand for what She did.

In the “Tale of Aqhat,” a child is promised to Daniel (Dani’ilu) (Note 3) for his piety and devotion. When Aqhat comes of age, he receives a compound bow from the Gods. At his coming out feast, envious Anat spills her wine (a sign of gross impoliteness). She tries to entice Aqhat to give Her the bow. He laughs at Anat, saying it is silly for a woman to have one. Seething with rage, Anat plots his murder. After Aqhat dies, She steals the bow but accidently breaks it. Then Anat breaks down and sobs for both Aqhat and the bow.

Called the Impetuous Maiden, Anat is a Goddess to be reckoned with. Under no one’s authority, She is her own person. She could be considered a Goddess of War, Fury, and Loyalty.

From the Ba‘al Cycle
“Did I not demolish the darling of `El, Yam the Sea?
Did I not make an end of Nahar the River, the great god divine Rabim?
Did I not snare the Dragon, vanquish him? I did demolish the Twisting Serpent, the Tyrant with Seven Heads?”
(The New World Encyclopedia)

Notes about the Gods of Canaan and the Old Testament.

Note 1: This is the Ba‘al who is often disparaged in The Old Testament. Some of his aspects such as “Cloudrider” were transferred to Yahweh. Several of the Psalms (11 and 29, for example) are odes to Ba‘al. The passage of Elijah defeating the priests of Ba‘al is a rewriting of the Ba‘al Epic to have Yahweh be the Lord of Weather and Rain. (1 Kings 18.)

Note 2: El is the High God of the Canaan Gods. He is called the “Father of Men” and “The Kindly, Merciful One.” Many of El’s titles are now used for Yahweh, such as El Shaddai (God Almighty). Again, several of the Psalms are odes to El (19 and 68, for example).

It is thought that El is now assumed to be Yahweh under another name. In fact, the more mild aspects of Yahweh such as mercy and compassion were assimilated from El to form the God of the Old Testament. Yahweh, before the merging, was a desert God, with a violent temper. As a battle God, He fought for his worshipers.

Note 3: Daniel (God’s judgement) is originally a Canaanite name.

You can purchase Anat prayer card and others here: Wyrd Curiosities

 

The Enuma Elish: History as Mythology

nbmarduknabu

During the Bronze Age in Mesopotamia, empires rose and fell. In the Enuma Elish, the creation story of the Babylonians, this is told in mythic terms. One part of the Enuma Elish tells of the rise of the Sumerians. Their generation of Gods were Anu (An), Enlil (Ellil), and Enki (Ea), who focused on developing agriculture and decreeing divine law. While Anu ruled the Gods, Enlil granted kingship, and Enki created people. These Gods had overthrown Tiamat of the Saltwater and Apsu of Sweet Water, the original Gods of the Ubaid people of the late Stone Age.

The Sumerians drained the swamps, dug out the canals, and began irrigation. They tamed the “sweetwater” thereby killing Apsu as a God. Moreover, they transformed the salt marshes into farmland. Then in 2330 BCE, Sargon of the Akkadians established the first empire. He began the first dynasty by deciding that his son should rule next. This was the beginning of having males be the heads of families as father figures (paterfamilias).

Then came the dark times, starting in 2218-2047 BCE, when the Gutians invaded from Iran. The wars between the Sumerians, Akkadians, Elamites and Assyrians became endless. The Enuma Elish describes this time as Tiamat raising an army, and defeating Enlil and the other Gods. Through continuous irrigation, salt made the land of the Mesopotamians infertile. Faced with dwindling resources including water, the various cities fought each other to gain these precious resources for their peoples. During this awful time, the suffering people wrote lamentations describing their misery — bodies melting in the sun and cities shrouded in smoke.

Into this war-torn landscape came the Amorites, who adopted the Sumerian culture and established their main city of Babylon. Under their king, Hammurabi, the Babylonians cemented their empire and imposed law and order in Mesopotamia. The Babylonians described their victory in the Enuma Elish. The Sumerian Gods, Enki and Enlil cede their power to Marduk, their principal God. Then He defeats Tiamat, and remakes the Cosmos with her body.

Like Marduk, Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE), who expanded the Babylonian Empire, established order. He wrote down and organized existing laws of various cities into the Code of Hammurabi. These statutes consisted of 282 laws, which ranged from setting wages to punishments for stealing to arranging for divorce. His reign was one of peace and prosperity.

Works Used:
Baigent, Michael, “Astrology in Ancient Mesopotamia.” Bear & Company: Rochester (VT). 2015.
Black, Jeremy and Green, Anthony, “Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary.” University of Texas Press, Austin, 1992.
Jacobsen, Thorkild, “The Treasures of Darkness.” Yale University Press, New Haven, 1976.
Mark, Joshua, “Sumer.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. 28, April 2011. Web. https://www.ancient.eu/sumer/. <accessed 12 October 2018.>
Siren, Christopher, “Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ.” 2000. Web.
https://stason.org/TULARC/education-books/assyro-babylonian-mythology/index.html. <accessed 12 October 2018.>
–, “Sumerian Mythology FAQ.” 2000. Web. http://humanpast.net/files/sumerianmyths.htm. <accessed 12 October 2018.>

Gods of the Month: November

For Romans, November was the month of community and games. The Ludi Plebeii (The Plebeian Games) in honor of Jupiter Optimus Maximus were held for ten days. I see November as a month to celebrate the community and the blessings of the Gods.

In the Wheel of the Year for Neo-Pagans, November is the time to remember the Ancestors. Two Gods of the Dead that I have devotions for at this time are Hecate and Anubis. Hecate has a festival day on November 30. (That is also “Extinct Species Day.”)

POMONA: A festival thanking Pomona, the Goddess of Orchards for the ripe fruit is held on November 1.

MANIA and DII MANES: The Opening of the Mundus (the Well to the Underworld) is conducted for the third time in the year on November 8.

FORTUNA PRIMIGENIA AND FERONIA: On the Ides of November (the 13th), Fortuna Primigenia and Ferona are honored. As the Mother of Juno and Jupiter, Fortuna Primigenia sets the destiny of children at their birth. Meanwhile, Ferona is the Goddess of Agricultural Produce.

TIAMAT: November 6 is one of the festival days for Tiamat of the Mesopotamian Gods. As the Great Mother Creator, She created Heaven and Earth with Her Body.

Cait Sith (Kellas Cat):Understanding Nonduality

 

caitsith

The Cait Sith of Scotland is a large black cat with dark green eyes, long ears and a white spot on her chest. If a person encountered the Cait Sith, they would hear a prophecy from Her. As a being from the Otherworld, She watches humans and reports on what She sees. In addition, the Cait Sith guards the secrets of the Otherworld.

People should be wary of the Cait Sith for a number of reasons. First and foremost, She steals people’s souls from their bodies. In Scotland when a person died, the family would guard the body in a Feille Fadalach (late wake). The first thing, they did was to douse all the fires. Afterwards, they lit a fire far away from the body to entice the Cait Sith to its warmth. Catnip was also spread around there as well. To distract the Cait Sith, people played music, held wrestling matches, and told riddles.

On Samhain (Halloween), the Cait Sith goes from house to house looking for milk to drink. If She found a full saucer, the Cait Sith blesses the family. Otherwise the Cait Sith curses their luck and their milk cows.

The idea that a cat has nine lives comes from stories about the Cait Sith. A witch could transform into a Cait Sith eight times. On the ninth time, they would remain in cat form forever.

Various people have suggested that the Cait Sith is the Kellas cat. This hybrid animal is the result of a mating between the Scottish wildcat and a domestic cat. The Kellas cat is pure black with a white a spot on his chest. This large cat also has powerful hind legs. The Kellas cat was once believed to be a hoax, until a specimen was shot and killed in 1984. (This animal is named for Kellas, Moray, where they was first seen.)

The Cait Sith helps people to understand “nonduality.” Is She the Kellas cat or is the Kellas cat, the Cait Sith? They are neither and both, going beyond human constructs. The Cait Sith and the Kellas Cat are from this world and the Otherworld. At liminal places, the two worlds bleed into each other, making them nondual. This can be one way to grasp nonduality.

Note:
Nonduality has been defined as “the philosophical, spiritual, and scientific understanding of non-separation and fundamental intrinsic oneness.” To grasp what nonduality is has been elusive. Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity and Neo-Platonism all have their own understandings of this concept.

Ethics for Polytheists: Being Psychic and The Right to Privacy

In the modern world of social media, it is easy to track people without them finding out. We often do this with relative ease and without any compunction. The problem of people tracking people is so prevalent that consumer agencies warn people of phishing scams to elicit private information or maliciously placing spyware on their computers.

Much like computer hackers and phishers, those who have psychic abilities, such as remote viewing or ESP, can follow a person with ease. Most people, with this ability, will use it in the guise of being helpful. Usually, they become the psychic version of “Life Alert tm,” watching over another person and notifying others of emergencies or accidents. These psychic people take it upon themselves to oversee the safety and well-being of another person. However, these well-meaning people often do not have permission to do this, and are thereby committing a breach of privacy.

People who collect and use personal data in their jobs, such as bank loan officers, grapple with the ethics of what should they collect, why, and how they use this information. People with remote viewing abilities need to know how data collectors resolve these dilemmas. Psychic people should be aware of how the right of access to information collides with the right to personal privacy.

An example of one of these dilemmas is the local supermarket that offers in exchange for your personal information, membership in their shoppers’ club. Members receive cheaper prices for their groceries. Should I give this supermarket my personal information for the ability to buy lower cost groceries? What will the store do with this information? Since their main objective is to make a profit, I see no reason to trust the supermarket to keep my personal information private. They could sell it to other marketers intent on selling me things. Therefore in this case, I choose not to give the grocery my information.

Writing for the Ecclasian Fellowship (a Neo-Pagan organization), Mark Chametzky discusses how the Wiccan Rede applies to data collection obtained by divination (which can apply to remote viewing). Chametzky states, “Don’t seek out information for which you do not have permission to obtain.” In other words, “Don’t ask. Don’t tell. Don’t investigate.” He emphasizes that invading another person’s privacy is a form of psychic dictatorship. At the expense of another person’s sovereignty, the remote viewer’s concerns are paramount. She becomes the final authority on what is important for the person whom she is spying on.

In U.S. law, there is a concept known as the “Expressed Will to Privacy.” If a person desires to keep a matter private, it stays private. Once a person gives their telephone number to a company, the data ceases to be private. Therefore, consumer protection agencies warn people about being tricked into giving out personal information to unethical companies.

In his paper, “Technology as a Threat to Privacy,” J.J. Britz of the University of Pretoria (South Africa), writes, “Privacy is an important right because it is a necessary condition for other rights such as freedom and personal autonomy. There is a relationship between privacy, freedom and human dignity. Respecting a person’s privacy is to acknowledge such a person’s right to freedom and to recognize that individual as an autonomous human being.”

Clifford Christians (Director, Institute of Communications Research, University of Illinois) gives the basis for Britz’s assertions. The 1948 Human Rights Declaration of the United Nations lays out the right to privacy. This U.N. document codifies the rights and dignity of every human being. Therefore any exception, to a privacy policy, that impinges on a person’s autonomy is suspect.

Many privacy violations revolve around the concept of “for your own good” or “on your behalf.” Goldberg, Hill, and Shostack in the “Boston University Law Review” points out that moral hazard come up between the data collector and the person, whom he fears will not consent to provide him the information that he wants. Desiring this particular data, the collector decides to act on his own. His reasoning is based on his perception of “in the best needs of the person.” Instead of getting permission, the data collector becomes the overseer of the other person. The authors charge that most reasons for collection without permission are trivial.

Simply because someone can do remote (psychic) viewing, does not mean that they has to acquiesce to everyone’s request. They needs to establish boundaries for themselves, so that they does not become psychically entangled with other people. The International Remote Viewing Association (IRVA) has a basic rule for their people to follow: “Put your nose out of things that do not concern you.”

The IRVA stresses “respect for others,” by focusing on the dignity of each person. This ethic is paramount in collecting data – the right to privacy and autonomy of each individual. The other thing that a psychic person may not perceive is that they have lost the trust of their friends. Because this person gave in to various requests, their friends cannot be sure if the person will not spy on them in the future. Since the psychic person so easily caved to their pleadings, these friends are unsure whether their secrets are safe from the person.

By trying to please their friends, the psychic person has violated their dignity as well. The person has enabled them to commit unethical acts, and rationalize what they did. The psychic person has allowed these friends to become comfortable in violating another’s privacy for their trivial reasons.

Most of all, the psychic person has violated themselves and their gift. They have become a tool for others instead of a human being worthy of respect. By using their ability to please others, the person has debased themselves by spying on non-consenting people. This person must understand that they have the right to say “no,” and be uninformed about other people.

Works Used:
Bennington, Alex, “An American Witch’s Book of Spells.” Self-published. 2012.

Britz, J.J., “Technology as a Threat to Privacy.” Simmons College Personal Site. 1996. Web. http://web.simmons.edu/~chen/nit/NIT%2796/96-025-Britz.html

Chametzky, Marc, “Ethics of Divination: An Exploration of the Wiccan Rede as It Applies to Divination.” Ecclasia. 2004. Web. http://ecclasia.com/ethicsdivination.html

Christians, Clifford, “Information Ethics in a Complicated Age.” University of Illinois. 1989. Web. https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/593/Christians_?sequence=2

Goldberg, Ian, Austin Hill, and Adam Shostak, “Trust, Ethics, and Privacy.” The Boston University Law Review, pgs 407 – 22. April 2001. Web. http://www.cypherpunks.ca/~iang/pubs/tep.pdf

—-, “Ethical Guidelines,” International Remote Viewing Association. 2018. Web. http://www.irva.org/remote-viewing/ethics.html

Leath, Melissa, “Psychic Integrity.” Balboa Press: Bloomington (IN). 2011.

Tree Magic: The Oak and Prosperity

brown acorn

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

My first experience with the magic of the oak was during Hurricane Floyd in 1999. A massive oak crashed into the livingroom of my condo. As the tree spread herself out in my home, she sent out her magic to protect us. Since then, no harm has come to my condo building, despite numerous hurricanes and other storms.

Since then, I realized that a part of doing magic with the oak requires asking the tree first. The oaks surrounding my building will answer by dropping their leaves for “yes” and waving them for “no.” An acorn dropping on my head is the oak requesting that I do magic with them.

The particular oak magic that I do annually is to gather acorns. I would bury some for the squirrels, some I would pile up for them to eat, and the rest I would bring inside. After placing them on my altar, I would ask for the blessings of protection and prosperity from the oak.

When the white oak, next to my condo, was overcome with shelf fungus, I decided to wage war. I went out with a claw hammer to bash it off. As I went to do this, I heard a voice say no. Pondering that, I realized that either I was hearing faeries or nature spirits. (They abhor iron or steel.) So I returned with my heavy walking stick. As I pounded the fungus off, I could feel a sense of relief. The shelf fungus was blocking entrances to Otherworlds. It was also suffocating the oak.

Since I am wary of faeries and nature spirits, I thought the best thing to do was to gather acorns for offerings. I spread them in a circle around the base of the tree. I hoped that the faeries would think kindly upon me for trying to keep the tree alive. I received an answer through my oracle deck when cards featuring acorns kept appearing. The faeries said thank-you.

Polytheistic Ethics: Adopting Native American Practices

I have a serious problem with the notion that the religious beliefs and practices of Native Americans are open for incorporation into non-Indian religions. Since many Native Americans have expressed dismay at this idea, I interpret their religions as closed to outsiders. Like other Polytheist religions, the beliefs of Native Americans are rooted in their community and are based on their particular culture.

Furthermore, what people think what Native Americans believe comes from the writings of outsiders. The few Native Americans who had books written such as Nicholas Black Elk of the Lakota were both Roman Catholic and Traditionalists. Black Elk, himself, said that he wanted to preserve the traditional rituals of his people by placing them into a Roman Catholic context. He presented the concept of the “Great Spirit” as singular and masculine, which is Christian. More traditional beliefs have the pairings of male and female Gods.

In general, Polytheism suffers from being interpreted by people steeped in the modern intellectual tradition of the West. Polytheistic religions like the Native Americans are not proto-Monotheistic or simply animistic. Like Native American religions, Roman Polytheism is a social religion with the individual as a member of the community. There is a religious aspect in every communal ritual and a communal aspect in every religious ritual.

As a Roman Polytheist, I look to my own religious traditions and beliefs. Roman Polytheism covers from the time of the Kings to the fall of the Empire (about 700 years). The usual practice is to select a period for deeper worship. Since I prefer Republican Rome, I do not regard Julius Caesar or the Emperors to be Gods. My Polytheism is a rich and fulfilling religion.

What I can learn from Native Americans and their religious practices is their piety. In Roman Polytheist, the Pax Deorum (Peace of the Gods) is maintain through pietas (piety).This is the devotion of the individual to their Gods, family, and community. Black Elk demonstrated this by doing what he could to preserve his people’s rituals. The Potlach Feast of the Chinook reaffirms their sacred relationship with their Gods, Nature Spirits, and community. Meanwhile, the Mi’kmaq leave offerings when they take something from nature. All this reaffirms the sacred web of reciprocity. Since my own community is far-flung, I can find ways to do my rituals to be a part of this web.

Works Used:
Adkins, Lesley and Roy Adkins, “Dictionary of Roman Religion.” New York: Oxford University Press. 1996.

Krasskova, Galina, “Devotional Polytheism.” Sanngetall Press. 2014.
“Honoring the Ancestors.” Sanngetall Press. 2014.

Native American Spirituality, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Web. http://www.religioustolerance.org/nataspir.htm.

Native Languages of the Americas: Native Cultures. Web. 2015. http://www.native-languages.org/home.htm

North American Religions, Overview of World’s Religions. Web. http://www.philtar.ac.uk/encyclopedia/nam/index.htmlhttp://www.philtar.ac.uk/encyclopedia/nam/index.html.

Paper, Jordan, “The Deities Are Many.” Albany NY: State University of New York Press. 2005.

Scheid, John, “An Introduction to Roman Religion,” Janet Lloyd, trans. Bloomington ID: Indiana University Press. 2003.

Thomas, Kirk, “Sacred Gifts.” Tucson AZ: ADF Publishing. 2015.

Triarius, L. Vitellius, “Religio Romana Handbook.” Self-published: Charleston (SC). 2014.