Venus of the Romans is a complex Goddess, who is often equated with the Greek Aphrodite. But Venus is more than the Goddess of Love, She is also the Patron of Gardeners and the Protector of the Graves of Girls. Venus Genetrix (the Mother of Rome) is the Ancestor of the Romans. Meanwhile, Venus Victrix (Venus Victorious) carries a spear into battle, and rides alongside her favorite generals.
The first temple to Venus was built in 295 BCE by Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges, Consul of Rome. He collected fines that were levied against women who were found guilty of adultery. Since it was built using those fines, the temple was dedicated to Venus Obsequens, the Goddess of Sexual Excess.
The second temple was built during the Second Punic War with Carthage. In a rite of evocatio, Dictator Quintus Fabius Maximus persuaded Venus Erycina (Venus from Eryx) to come to Rome. To defeat the Carthaginians, the Sibylline Books counseled to remove this Goddess from Sicily, which was allied with Carthage. After Venus Erycina came to Rome, She became the Goddess of Female Prostitutes.
Upon discovering the unchaste activities of three Vestal Virgins, the Romans consulted the Sibylline Books. To atone for this gross act of impiety, the Senate built a temple for Venus Verticordia (Venus the Changer of Hearts) in 114 BCE. This Venus is the Protector Against Vice.
For his military victories, Pompey claimed that Venus Victrix (Venus Victorious) blessed him. To celebrate his triumphs, Pompey dedicated a temple to Her in 55 BCE. She shared the space with a permanent theater which Pompey also wanted to build.
Julius Caesar introduced the cult of Venus Gentrix, the Goddess of Motherhood and Marriage. His family, the Gens Julia, had long claimed Venus as an Ancestor. After Caesar, Venus Gentrix became the Mother of the Roman People. In 135 CE, Hadrian built a temple to Her and Roma Aeterna (Eternal Rome). He considered Venus to be the Protector of Rome.